Reproduction Published: November 29, 2011 Reprinted: Last edits:
Cuttings - one of the most popular ways of breeding indoor plants. This video clearly shows how to propagate such indoor plants:
- Ficus rubber
- Rosean Chinese
- Cyperus alternate-leaved
- Begonia (leaf and stem cuttings)
- Fat woman
Video of cuttings of indoor plants
Propagation by cuttings (part 1)
Propagation by cuttings (part 2)
Reproduction and propagation of plants
There are several ways of reproduction - from seeds and vegetatively: by dividing the bush, root suckers, children, cuttings, leaves, grafting. The best is the vegetative method, since it allows you to get an adult, flowering plant faster and at less cost and makes it possible to propagate plants that do not produce seeds in indoor conditions. It also guarantees the transmission of the best qualities of the mother plant to the offspring: the shape of the crown, leaves, flowers, their color, etc.
Division of the bush and separation of processes
By dividing the bush, many plants reproduce that have a strongly overgrown rhizome underground: sansevier, aspidistra, asparagus, cyperus, etc. Fast-growing plants can be divided into many relatively small parts, making sure that each has enough shoots and roots. To divide the bush, it is carefully pulled out of the pot, cleaned of the ground and cut the rhizome into pieces with a sharp knife or pruning shears, making sure that each one has leaves and roots. The cuts are sprinkled with crushed coal and each part is planted in a separate pot.
Clivias, philodendrons, agaves, aloes, dracaena and others are propagated by root offspring, that is, plants that form small plants on the adventitious roots. When transplanting the mother plant, they are carefully separated, keeping the roots and planted in a separate pot. Children are called young bulbs that form at the bottom of the mother's bulb.
How to properly propagate orchids?
When dividing an orchid, it is advisable to use only large, developed rhizomes with well-formed growth buds. Cut the rhizomes with shears into several pieces and place in the substrate. Orchids with a shortened stem are cleaned of old dead roots, divided into parts, sprinkle with crushed charcoal, and place each part separately in an appropriate substrate. Phalaenopsis is the most difficult to propagate. Planting material is obtained by separating the apical shoots from the mother plant. However, few shoots grow, therefore, to enhance shoots, it is recommended to remove the faded peduncle. From its base, new shoots will grow, suitable for cuttings.
Propagation by stem cuttings
The most common breeding method is cuttings. It involves rooting cuttings - parts of twigs or stems - in a porous substrate, usually sand. A large number of indoor plants are propagated by stem cuttings: geranium, lemon, oleander, ficus, fuchsia, ivy, begonias, tradescantia and many others.
Cuttings are cut from annual shoots with three to five buds, no more than 10 cm in length. Sections are made with a sharp knife, the lower one is under the kidney, obliquely (1-2 mm from it) and the closer to it, the better the rooting of the upper one will be 3-5 mm above the kidney. The cut must be straight and clean. Large leaves on the upper part of the cutting are cut in half, and small leaves are left whole. Leaves must be kept as they produce nutrients and thus promote faster and better root formation.
Cuttings of ficus, milkweed and other plants, which contain milky juice that prevents rooting, are first dipped in warm water with the lower end and kept until the release of milky juice stops. After that, the cuttings are put on rooting.
If you want the crown of your rubber plant to become thicker and more branched, then when the plant reaches about 1 m in height, cut off its top. Use cut shoots as cuttings. It is necessary to cut correctly. The cut is made directly under the leaf axil. Wash off the milky juice. To do this, the stalk is placed in warm water. On the mother plant, the cut is burned with a candle flame.
The emergence of roots can be activated with the help of special preparations - elin, root, heteroauxin. They also protect the cutting from rot damage. So that a lot of moisture does not evaporate from the surface of the leaf and to accelerate the appearance of roots, the ficus leaf must be twisted into a tube. This position is fixed with an elastic band. Cover the top with a glass jar or transparent polyethylene. As soon as the roots form on the cutting, a new sprout turns green, you can plant it in a separate pot.
Strongly overgrown dracaena plants can be cut off, and the cuttings can be used for cuttings. The cut must be clean. Disinfect the blade of a sharp knife over fire or alcohol and cut off the top of the dracaena and part of the trunk. Palm-length pieces of the stem take root better. Mark the lower ends with a marker or make notches on them. With the lower end, bury the cutting in light soil for seedlings. Pull a plastic bag over the sticks. Can be rooted by laying the stands horizontally in the substrate. Under a transparent cover, the stalk sprouts when placed horizontally on a substrate. After the roots appear, sprinkle the section of the stem with earth.
One of the most popular medicinal plants in indoor floriculture is the golden mustache, which is easily propagated by the mustache. For vegetative propagation of the golden whisker, apical cuttings of adult plants or young rosettes taken from the whiskers are used. Rooting takes place quickly in water or soil.
Some plants: chlorophytum crested, tolmia, saxifrage give whiskers - thin stems extending from the core of the plant, with young plants at the ends, which gradually develop roots. Plant these young, multi-rooted plants gently in a pot of sand, humus soil, and peat. If the young plant is not very well developed, it should remain connected to the mother plant with a whisker for several more weeks. Then cut it off at the very rosette of young leaves.
You can root in boxes, pots and bowls. After planting, the cuttings are watered. From above, the pot is covered with glass or a plastic bag to create high humidity inside it and prevent the cuttings from drying out. Cacti and succulent plants root without shelter. The cuttings are kept in a warm, bright place, maintaining the humidity of the air under the glass by frequent spraying. Cuttings must be protected from direct sunlight. Under favorable conditions, after two to three weeks, roots begin to appear in the cuttings and they must be gradually accustomed to environmental conditions. Rooted cuttings are transplanted into separate pots in light soil.
For the rooting of very valuable, but difficult to root plants (azaleas, camellia, magnolia), as well as for faster and better rooting of cuttings, they are treated in a solution of heteroauxin.
Propagation by leaf cuttings
Ornamental-leaved begonias can be propagated with one single leaf. To do this, the leaf petiole is buried in the substrate, leaving a leaf blade on its surface. To get several plants, the veins are cut from the lower side and, fixing the position of the leaf with pebbles, they are placed on the substrate.
Leaves propagate royal begonia, saintpaulia, gloxinia, sansevier and many others. They are rooted in clean coarse-grained river sand. Begonia and sansevier can be propagated even by leaf pieces. The begonia leaf is cut into triangular plates along the nerve. These nodes are buried in the sand. The sansevier leaf is cut into pieces 5-8 cm long and each of them is buried in the sand for 1/3 of the length. Gloxinia and Saintpaulia leaves are cut with a petiole, which is buried in the sand.
It is possible to grow new plants from individual leaves of stonecrop, fatweed and other succulents without much difficulty. Cuttings of very succulent plants (cacti and other succulents) are preliminarily dried for 24 hours in a shaded place. The leaves are separated from the mother plant and dried, then the base of the leaf is buried down into the substrate.
Fern is propagated not only by dividing rhizomes, but also by spores. They are located on the underside of the leaves (wai) and are clearly visible when ripe. The ripe fern leaf should be plucked and placed in a plastic bag for several days. Sow spores collected in this way on a well-heated and disinfected substrate in flat dishes. After sowing the spores, the substrate should be watered, especially in hot weather. After 2-3 months, the spores will germinate and small overgrowths will appear. Plants that have grown from the outgrowths dive when they reach a height of 4-5 cm.
Bulbous and corms
Tulips, daffodils, crocuses, hypeastrum, etc. are propagated by bulbs and babies. During the period of growth and development of plants, several small onions (children) are formed from the buds located in the axils of the scales of old bulbs. They serve as the main material for reproduction. After the leaves of the plants have dried up, remove them from the pots, sort them, divide them into parsing, dry them and store them until planting.
The propagation of indoor plants by seeds is carried out less frequently than in other ways. This method is more complicated, laborious and time consuming. Growing from seeds has other features as well. Many varieties of perennial indoor flowers lose their attractiveness and specific characteristics during seed reproduction. As for annuals, they reproduce quite easily by seeds. It is a little more difficult to grow cacti, saintpaulias, ferns by seed method.
When propagated by seeds, the grown plant may change the shade and shape of the leaf plates, the color of the flowers.
The main condition for the successful reproduction of plants by seeds is their freshness. For seeds of most plants, germination decreases during long-term storage. Sowing time is determined by the rate of germination: for fast germinating seeds, the optimal planting time is March or April.
Seeds with a hard shell (palm, camellia, asparagus and others) must be prepared for planting in advance. Seed treatment is carried out in various ways. Can:
- scald the seeds with boiling water
- soak in water for 3-5 days
- file the skin with a file, cut with a knife
- soak the seeds in aloe juice.
Before sowing, the soil for disinfection is poured with boiling water 1-2 times. The pots or trays are then covered with a suitable soil substrate (usually a mixture of peat and clay). It is better not to sow seeds in ready-made commercial soil for indoor flowers. Large amounts of nutrients contained in such soil inhibit the germination process.
When planting a small number of plants, seeds are sown in pots, otherwise it is more convenient to use a tray.
- On a tray. The soil mixture poured into the tray is leveled with a plank or other improvised means, slightly compacted. Seeds are evenly distributed over the surface, sprinkled with a thin layer of soil (the thickness should be equal to the size of the seeds). A sieve can be used to distribute the soil evenly over the surface. Then the crops are evenly watered, the container is covered with glass or placed in a greenhouse.
- Into the pot. High-quality drainage is laid out on the bottom of the pot (fine gravel, coarse sand, pebbles), and the soil mixture is poured on top. The soil is leveled, tamped. Seeds scattered over the surface are covered with a layer of soil. Watering is carried out using a spray. Then the pot is covered with foil or glass, placed in a greenhouse.
If the sowing of small seeds was carried out, the distance between the soil and the glass should be about 1 cm, when planting large planting material - 1.5–2 cm.
Crops need to be provided with periodic bottom watering or spraying, regular ventilation, and removal of condensation from glass or film. After the emergence of shoots, the glass can be removed, and the container with the shoots can be moved to a brighter place, but only with diffused lighting.
A pick is necessary to form a strong root system. The procedure is usually carried out 2-3 times, and in each case a more fertile soil mixture is taken. Pry the seedling with a pointed peg, lift it slightly, transfer it to another container with wet soil, spray it, place it under glass for a couple of days.
Some plants need to be dived 4–5 times, and there are species that cannot stand this procedure at all.
After the seedlings are well rooted and germinated, they are transplanted into pots with suitable soil and placed in a permanent growing area.
How can the rooting of cuttings be accelerated?
A useful technique that allows you to accelerate the formation of roots in cuttings and layering is furrowing, that is, applying shallow longitudinal cuts (grooves) on 1–2 lower internodes and nodes. The influx of growth substances increases to the wounds, which facilitates the development of roots.
Preparations and folk methods to stimulate root formation of cuttings
The use of aloe juice to stimulate root formation
Chop the bottom aloe leaves, put them in a bag and refrigerate in the vegetable compartment for a few hours. After that, squeeze the juice from the leaves and add 7-10 drops to a glass of water. Place the cuttings in the solution for 2 days.
Application of honey solution to stimulate root formation
Dissolve 1 tsp. honey in 1.5 liters of warm water. Place the cuttings in the solution for half a day.
cuttings of roses and hydrangeas: paniculate and tree-like
Application of the drug "Kornevin" to stimulate root formation
It is sold in powder form and is used for dusting the sections. The active ingredient is β-indolylbutyric acid.
Application of the drug "Ukorenit" to stimulate root formation
The method of application is the same as for Kornevin. The active ingredient is charcoal powder and β-indolylbutyric acid.
Application of the drug "Heteroauxin" to stimulate root formation
Sold in powder and tablet form. It is used to soak the ends of cuttings. The active ingredient is potassium salt and β-indoleacetic acid.
the use of Epin to stimulate root formation
Treatment with stimulants should be done in the dark, at a temperature of + 18 ... + 22 ° C. The cuttings are immersed in the solution so that the leaves are not processed.
How to root cuttings?
Different plants root in different ways, many houseplants root easily in water, and many woody plants take root in soil.
Rooting cuttings in water
Take cuttings from the mother plant 10-16 cm.
Using a sharp knife or pruner, cut just below where the leaf attaches to the stem, called a knot. Roots grow most easily from this location.
If you leave part of the stem under the knot, it can rot.
Remove the bottom leaves, but keep the top leaves, no more than three.
The part of the cuttings that will be below the surface of the water should not have leaves.
It is also necessary to remove all flowers and buds, if present, otherwise the flowers will try to grow into a seed or may use the nutrients that are needed for the cutting.
Several cuttings can be placed together in one container.
Be sure to add fresh water as needed until the cuttings are fully rooted.
Rooting usually takes place after 3-4 weeks, but some plants take longer.
When the roots are 2.5-5 cm in length or more, cuttings are ready for transplanting in a pot with soil.
The pot must be the right size for this root system.
They need to be transplanted into moist soil.
If the cuttings have grown too tall during this time, it is better to prune them so that the plant is more compact and dense.
How to root root cuttings
Plant thick pieces of root vertically, with the cut end up, in a pot of soil.
Place the cuttings pots in a plastic bag and cover the soil with plastic wrap.
Avoid placing cuttings in direct sunlight, where heat builds up under the plastic.
Check from time to time to keep the soil moist.
It takes several weeks for the shoots to appear.
When they finally appear, remove the plastic.
Once the shoot has a small mass of roots, transplant it into a pot filled with good quality soil.
Place the plant in sunlight and keep the soil moist at all times.