Growing Coffeeberries – Learn About Coffeeberry Shrub Care

Growing Coffeeberries – Learn About Coffeeberry Shrub Care

By: Amy Grant

What are coffeeberries? Sorry, not coffee or related to coffee at all. The name is indicative of the deep brown coffee color, which the berries attain once ripened. Coffeeberry plants are an excellent landscape choice for the sustainable garden, or really anywhere, due to their ability to survive in most any climate, soil, and irrigation level.

What are Coffeeberries?

A member of the Buckthorn family, Rhamnaceae, California coffeeberry plants (Frangula californica; formerly Rhamnus californica) are an adaptable evergreen shrub useful in the garden as an informal hedge or in the understory as a backdrop for showier plants. Cultivars of growing coffeeberries range in size from 2 to 3 feet (60 to 90 cm.) tall by 3 to 4 feet (0.9 to 1.2 m.) wide to some around 4 to 10 feet (1.2 to 3 m.) tall, although in its native environment growing in the shade, specimens may attain a height greater than 15 feet (4.5 m.).

The flowers of growing coffeeberries are insignificant but produce lovely berries in hues from lime green to rose red and burgundy to nearly black against a dark green backdrop of foliage. Although these berries are inedible to humans, they are relished by many types of birds and small mammals during the late summer to fall months.

Additional Coffeeberry Plant Information

Just as coffeeberry plant owes part of its common name to its resemblance to roasted coffee beans, there is yet another similarity akin to coffee. Like coffee, coffeeberries act as a strong laxative and may be available commercially in tablet form or liquid capsules.

The Kawaiisu Indians used mashed coffeeberry leaves, sap and the berries themselves to halt bleeding and aid in the healing of burns, infections and other wounds. In low doses, taken internally, coffeeberry may ease rheumatism. The bark and berries of coffeeberry plant were also used to induce vomiting.

How to Grow Coffeeberry

The answer to, “How to grow coffeeberry?” is very easy. Growing coffeeberries are widespread throughout most of California and found anywhere from woodlands to less hospitable brushy canyons and chaparral.

Able to thrive in light conditions from full sun to shade, drought adaptable but able to survive through rainy seasons, flourishing in heavy clay soils that thwart the growth of most other plants, growing coffeeberries is as easy a plant to grow as the gardener can hope for.

Coffeeberry Shrub Care

Hmm. Well, lest I sound like a broken record, coffeeberry plants are extremely forgiving and almost anywhere you decide to plant them, they will adapt and survive. Coffeeberry shrub care really couldn’t be simpler; the only real question is what cultivar to choose.

Cultivars of coffeeberry plants range in sizes with many low-growing varieties like ‘Seaview Improved’ and ‘Little Sure’ to middle of the road ‘Mound San Bruno’ and ‘Leatherleaf’ on into the taller trees such as ‘Eve Case’ and ‘Bonita Linda,’ which makes a lovely living trellis.

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5 Reasons You Should NEVER Use Coffee Grounds In Your Garden

Published: Sep 16, 2019 by Tracey Besemer · This post may contain affiliate links.

A quick search for “Using coffee grounds in the garden” and Google will unleash a deluge of links to articles telling you to save those spent grounds!

We are advised to put them in the garden for perky plants and bright blue azaleas. Coffee grounds ward off slugs! Put coffee grounds in your compost for healthy soil and earthworms! Grow HUGE plants with coffee grounds! Some even suggest using coffee as a mulch.

It doesn’t take long to see that coffee is touted as the panacea of the garden. Whatever you’re gardening issue is, it seems coffee can fix it.

(As a coffee-lover, I’m already convinced of the magical properties of coffee to bring me back to the living.)

But are coffee grounds really all that great for your garden?

Once you start digging into Google’s massive list of articles, conflicting information begins to surface. Coffee grounds are too acidic coffee grounds aren’t acidic at all. Coffee is terrible for your compost coffee makes excellent compost, etc.

Because I love you, Rural Sprout readers, I spent a couple of hours sleuthing on the internet to cut through the myth and bring you the truth.

You might want to sit down for this.

But make a cup of coffee before you settle in to read. We’re about to fall down the rabbit hole.


What You’ll Learn

  • Breaking Ground
    • Keep Those Wild Berries Away!
    • Full Sun and Good Soil
    • Organic Material
    • Space and Room to Grow
  • Which Types to Grow
    • Raspberries and Blackberries
    • Cranberries
    • Blueberries
    • Strawberries

Native Shrubs of the Pacific and Northwest

Native shrubs also offer strength, beauty and some berries for you as well.

Plants of the West or Pacific coast vary from the hot arid South, North to Alaska and every point in between.

The Pacific coast is long strip from the crest of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges in the East, to the Pacific Ocean in the West.

North, from the Alaska coastline all the way South to Baja, California.

This defined region embraces extremes in climate and length of growing seasons. What other region offers extreme winters and cold temperatures, to Mediterranean and sub tropical conditions.

In the dry South, Xeriscaping may be in order and plants may be from the desert southwest or natives that require less water and enjoy the heat. Plantings like Sages, Manzanita and Toyon.

As you head North, dry heat gives way to cooler temperatures and rain. Temperate rain forests follow the coastline from northern California, through Oregon, Washington, British Columbia and Alaska.

What is amazing about the region is many of the same shrubs that grow in California are native to coastal Alaska and Canada.

Though summers are short in Alaska and Canada, the warmer Pacific waters keep the coastal temperatures at a moderate level where Hardiness zones 5 and 6 are the norm.

Though I will mention a handful of shrubs, many if not all of them can grow throughout most of the Pacific coast region and all are natives.

California coffeeberry (Rhamnus californica):

California coffeeberries are shrubs that can be found and grow throughout the region.

These easy to grow densely branched evergreen bushes are found on wind swept coastal areas where they may be only a foot tall, to inland shrubs that may be over 10 feet tall.

Zone hardy from Z5 to Z10, Coffeeberry's water requirements are low and it prefers a sandy well drained soil.

It grows in full sun to light shade making it ideal for most coastal area gardens.

The attractive fruits will bring several fruit-eating birds to your native garden. Cedar waxwings, American robins, Black headed grosbeaks and others will enjoy your offerings.

Pollinators, like hover flies, bees and other insects will enjoy the small flowers in late spring.

The dense branches provide cover for birds and small mammals.

Pale swallowtail butterflies also lay their eggs on the leaves of California coffeeberry.

California lilac (Ceanothus spp.):

Deciduous bushes growing to 12 plus feet.

Hardy to zone 7 California lilac blooms in June and the seeds ripen from August to October. It can fix Nitrogen. The plant prefers sandy or medium soils and requires well-drained soil.

The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.

California lilac does well in dry or moist soil and does well in a woods edge garden where it can receive full sun or light to partial shade.

Red-flowering currant (Ribes sanguineum):

Currants shrubs are loved by people, several insects and birds as well as some animals.

Not just for the fruits, but the flowers as well.

Certainly one of the most beloved and showy of native northwest shrubs, the brilliant display of carmine red flowers in spring are welcomed by gardeners and hummingbirds alike.

Currants are found all along the Pacific coast from South California to Anchorage, Alaska.

Red currant does best in rocky, well drained soil in sunny locations and less well in heavy soils and shade.

It is very upright, to six feet, in habit and should be used in the middle or back of a border bed. It also works well in mass plantings in open forests and on slopes.

Zone hardy from Z-6 to Z-10, currants require low to medium water and are great in a dry garden and do well in moist conditions if the soil is well drained.

There are several varieties of currant growing native and in nurseries. At least one is sure to be a hit in your wildlife gardens.

Hummingbirds and insects enjoy the nectar in April and May when Currants are in bloom.

The fruits ripen from August through October and fruit eating birds like Yellow rumped warblers, Thrashers and others will enjoy the fruits.

Small mammals appreciate a berry or two as well.

Currants are ideal for a woods edge garden, some varieties do better in sun while others prefer light shade.

Mountain or Rosy spirea (Spirea densiflora):

In its natural habitat 2,000 to 11,000 feet above sea level, Mountain spirea shrubs will bloom in June and July, but at or near sea level it may Bloom in May. Spirea will rebloom freely if you prune off the old heads.

The fuzzy pink floret clusters attract butterflies and other pollinating insects.

Later in fall and winter the tiny seeds offer food for Finches, Siskins and other seed eating birds.

Mountain spirea grows throughout the region and East into northern Idaho and western Montana.

Zone hardy from Z-5 to Z-9, Spireas are attractive shrubs that can be pruned to keep a compact shape or let them grow naturally.

Spireas require little water and thrive in full sun to partial shade.

Just about any soil will do for this hardy native of the Pacific coast region.

Ideal for a woodland garden.

In warmer zones, Spireas will give you a bonus with an extended bloom period.

Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus):

Thimbleberries aren't really shrubs, but they are in that classification for some reason.

I like Thimbleberries, not only are they natives of the Pacific Coast and mountain regions, they are native to Michigan's upper peninsula along the Lake Superior coastline.

The berries and the preserves made from them are considered quite a delicacy.

Thimbleberries blossom from May to July offering nectar and pollen for a multitude of insects.

The real treat comes with the red berries.

The juicy raspberry type fruits are craved by fruit eating birds, mammals and of course people.

Thimbleberries make wonderful preserves and pies. As a tourist to Michigan's upper peninsula, Thimbleberry jam is a must to take back home with us.

Zone hardy from Z-3 to Z-10, Thimbleberries can be invasive and are best to let grow in a wild garden or wooded area.

They can grow from 4 to 10 feet long with fruits produced on old growth.

They prefer a well drained slightly acid soil in a shady location.

Water requirements are low to moderate.

Deer may munch on the tender new growth.

Be sure to plant enough for you and your wildlife.

Tall Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium):

There are different varieties of Oregon grape shrubs, This is a bit of information on Tall Oregon grape.

Adapted to dry, open, more rocky habitats, the Tall Oregon grape has fewer leaflets (5-9) than its cousin, Low Oregon Grape (9-19). It also handles shade and moisture as well.

More rugged in appearance, it is looks best planted with shorter plants around it. The holly-like leaves make it an excellent barrier hedge.

Bright yellow clustered flowers in January to May are followed by purple fruits in August to September.

Evergreen shrubs that can grow to 6' tall and 4' to 5' wide.

It is hardy to zone 5, the scented flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Insects.

The plant does well in most soil conditions and can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or full sun.

Once it is established, it does well in dry or moist soil.

The stiff holly like foliage offers protection for small birds and mammals.

Pollinators appreciate the flowers and the purple berries offer food for several species of birds.

Evergreen huckleberry (Vaccinum ovatum):

Your garden isn't complete without a grouping of Huckleberry shrubs.

The short to medium sized evergreen bushes grow between 4' to 10' and are a favorite understory planting in coniferous forests.

In mid to late Spring, the branches are laden with pale pink to white bell shaped flowers that attract hummingbirds, butterflies, bees and other pollinators.

By summer, the branches carry tasty, dark purple to pale blue berries.

Hardy in zones 7 to 10, Evergreen huckleberry grows best in light to medium shade and in most soil conditions, but prefer acid soil.

Moderate water is required for this shade loving plant.

Be sure to plant these shrubs in the shade as a well established evergreen or an open woods or shady woods edge.

Plant several of these evergreen beauties as they attract several fruit eating birds like Western tanager and Orange-crowned warblers.

Chipmunks, squirrels and if you live in bears (if you live in country) will appreciate your efforts as well.

Salal (Gaulthetria shallon):

The zig-zaggy stems of evergreen Salal weave intricate shrubberies and hedges along the edge of coastal woodlands.

They will do likewise in your garden, enlarging their territory if left unchecked.

In June to July, modest clusters of white to pale pink bell shaped flowers appear offering nectar for hummingbirds and insects.

By late July through September, large black berries appear offering food for several fruit eating birds, small mammals and bears if they are in your area.

These evergreen jewels are hardy in zones 7 - 10, require moderate sun to full shade.

Water requirements are rather high, so be sure to plant with plants that have like needs.

Salal do best in acid soil and appreciate being planted under large conifers like Douglas fir.

There you have it, a taste of pacific region shrubs.

Bushes of the Desert Southwest and Of the Mountains and Basins that cross regions and may suit your fancy in your "Native Wildlife Garden.


Plants→Frangula→Coffeeberry (Frangula californica subsp. californica)

Botanical names:
Frangula californica subsp. californica Accepted
Rhamnus californica Synonym

General Plant Information (Edit)
Plant Habit:Shrub
Tree
Life cycle:Perennial
Sun Requirements:Full Sun
Full Sun to Partial Shade
Water Preferences: Mesic
Minimum cold hardiness:Zone 8b -9.4 °C (15 °F) to -6.7 °C (20 °F)
Maximum recommended zone:Zone 11
Plant Height :15 - 20 feet on favorable sites but usually grows 4 - 6 feet.
Plant Spread :6 - 8 feet
Leaves:Evergreen
Broadleaf
Other: Leaves dark green above with paler reverse leaves usually inrolled.
Fruit:Showy
Edible to birds
Other: Small green drupes, maturing to red and then black each containing 2 seeds that resemble coffee beans.
Fruiting Time:Fall
Late fall or early winter
Flowers:Inconspicuous
Flower Color:Other: Greenish
Bloom Size:Under 1"
Flower Time:Spring
Late spring or early summer
Underground structures:Taproot
Suitable Locations:Xeriscapic
Uses:Windbreak or Hedge
Resistances:Drought tolerant
Toxicity:Other: Handling the plant may cause contact dermititis in some individuals.
Pollinators:Various insects

Birds are known to just about strip all the fruit from these shrubs to the point that most seeds never reach the ground and sprout.

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How to Harvest and Use Borage

Leaves

Borage leaves are tasty in salads, or you can cook them as you would kale or spinach. Pick only the young, tender leaves as the older ones get hairy.

Harvest in the morning when the dew has dried, but the sun hasn’t got too hot. This helps retain the distinctive taste of the oils.

Dry the leaves in the oven or air dry them by hanging plants in a warm, airy room. Use the dried leaves as seasoning. You can also use the dry leaves as a salt alternative when cooking.

Flowers

You can also eat borage blossoms. Pick the flowers in the morning before they wilt too much in the sun.

Candy them and use on cakes or as a sweet treat. They can be added to salads for flavor and color, or top sandwiches, dips, and soups.

If you have too many blossoms to use them all up, freeze them with water in an ice cube tray. You can use the cubes to add color to fruit punches.

As with all edible flowers eat in moderation until you’re sure your system can process them.

Medicinal Uses

Both the leaves and the flowers can be used medicinally. You can also make an oil out of the seeds, which can ease eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, and itchy skin.

The leaves can be used to help with menstrual symptoms, and pain and swelling. The flowers are useful for fever, cough, and depression.

Collecting Seeds

Borage is good at self-seeding (although nowhere near as prolific as mint). You can either let the seeds fall to self -seed for next season, or collect the seeds and replant.

Wait for the flowers to die off and pick the seeds before they fall to the ground. I find when they start turning brown is the best time to pick them. Ensure they are dry before sealing in a paper envelope for next year.

We hope you give borage a go. It’s a pretty plant that is far more useful than a lot of people realize. If you have bees, then I highly recommend borage because it will make your honey taste incredible. Your bees will thank you for it, as well.


Watch the video: COFFEE PLANT CARE - INDOOR GROWING